Tuesday, May 28, 2024

Chapter-1 [Networking and Telecommunication]

Answer the following questions

  1. What is data and information?
    The raw facts or figures that are obtained from various sources is called data.
    The meaningful result that we get after the processing of data is called information.
  2. What is data communication? List the different modes of data communication.
    The process of transferring the data from one computer to another computer or from one device to another device is called data communication.
    Following are the different modes of data communication:

    • Simplex
    • Half Duplex
    • Full Duplex
  3. Define simplex, half-duplex and full duplex with examples.
    Simplex:
    The mode of data communication in which data is transmitted in only one direction is called simplex. It is unidirectional. i.e. data can flow in only one direction. For example: radio, television etc.
    Half Duplex:
    The mode of data communication in which data is transmitted in both direction but in one direction at a time is called Half Duplex. It is bi-directional. i.e. data can flow in both direction. For example: walkie-talkie.
    Full Duplex:
    The mode of data communication in which data is transmitted in both direction simultaneously at the same time is called Full Duplex. It is bi-directional. i.e. data can flow in both direction. For example: mobile phone, computer etc.
  4. What is computer network? List its advantages and disadvantages.
    The interconnection of computers with wires or wireless media for the purpose of sharing hardware or software resources is called computer network.
    Following are the advantages and disadvantages of computer network.
    Advantages:
    • It reduces the cost of operation.
    • It allows you to share hardware and software resources.
    • It allows you to share data and information.
    • It allows you to access the computer remotely from the another location.
    Disadvantages:
    • There is a high chance of spreading computer viruses on the network.
    • There is a risk of private information being leaked.
    • Hackers can steal your data and information.
    • Computer network may be expensive to set up.
  5. How does a computer network reduces the cost of operation?
    The computer network is the interconnection of computers. They allow you to share computer hardware and software resources. As you don’t need to buy individual hardware and software for each computer on the network this helps to reduce the cost of operation.
  6. What are the types of computer network? Define them.
    Following are the types of computer network:
    i. Local Area Network (LAN)
    ii. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
    iii. Wide Area Network (WAN)
    Local Area Network (LAN):
    A computer network that covers small geographical location like a room, building or campus is known as Local Area Network (LAN).Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
    A computer network that covers larger geographical area than LAN and smaller geographical area than WAN is called Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The computer in MAN are interconnected within a city or neighboring cities.
    Wide Area Network (WAN):
    A computer network that covers the largest geographical area is called Wide Area Network (WAN). The computers in WAN are interconnected within a country, neighboring countries, continent and neighboring continents. Internet is the example of WAN.
  7. What is network topology? List its types.
    The cabling pattern of interconnected computers on the LAN is called network topology. It describes how computers on the network are interconnected to each other.
    Following are the types of network topology:
    i. Bus Topology
    ii. Star Topology
    iii. Ring Topology
    iv. Tree Topology
    v. Mesh Topology
  8. Define star topology with diagram.
    The network topology in which the computers on the network are interconnected to each other through the central connecting device called HUB or Switch is called star topology.

  9. What is bus topology? List any two advantages and two disadvantages of bus topology.
    A network topology in which all the nodes on the network are connected to the main cable called bus or trunk is known as bus topology.
    Advantages:
    • It is easy and cheaper to setup.
    • It requires less amount of cables and adding new devices in a network is also easy.
    Disadvantages:
    • If there is fault in main cable then whole network will collapse.
    • Fault finding is very difficult.
  10. List the advantages and disadvantages of star topology.
    Advantages:
    • It is easy find fault.
    • The network can be easily expanded.
    Disadvantages:
    • If there is fault in hub or switch then whole network will collapse.
    • It is expensive to set up.
  11. What is ring topology? List any two advantages and two disadvantages of ring topology.
    A network topology in which all the nodes on the network are connected to two other computers and create a structure like a ring is known as ring topology.
    Advantages:
    • It is easy to setup.
    • It provides high speed data transmission.
    Disadvantages:
    • The network goes down if any segment of cable or nodes fails.
    • It is difficult to find errors in ring topology.
  12. What is server? Define client.
    The main computer on the network that provides various resources to the client computers is called server. It is also called host computer.
    The computer on the network that uses the resources provided by the server computer on the network is called client computer. It is also called workstation.
  13. What is protocol? List any for protocols used in communication.
    The set of rules that a computer on the network uses to communicate with each other is called protocol.
    Following are some of the protocols used in communication:
    i. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)
    ii. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
    iii. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
    iv. POP (Post Office Protocol)
    v. HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
  14. What is network architecture? List them.
    A network model that describe how computers on the network interact and communicate with each other is called network architecture.
    Following are the types of network architecture.
    i. Client – Server Network Model
    ii. Peer-to-Peer Network Model
    iii. Centralized Network Model
  15. What is communication media? List their types.
    The path through which data or information are transmitted from one computer to another computer on the network is called communication media. It is also called transmission channel.
    Following are the types of communication media.
    i. Guided Media
    ii. Unguided Media
  16. Define bounded media and unbounded media with examples.
    The transmission channel through which data or signals are transmitted through a specific path using cables is known as bounded transmission media. It is also called guided or wired media. Example: co-axial cable, fiber optic cable and twisted pair cable.
    The transmission channel that uses radio wave, infrared, microwave etc. for transmitting data from one device to another device is called unbounded transmission media. It does not use cables for data transmission. Example: microwave, satellite, radio wave etc.
  17. In which communication media data transfer rate is fastest?
    In fiber-optic cables the data transmission rate is fastest.
  18. Define mode of communication.
    Data transmission mode refers to the direction of the flow of data between two communication devices connected on the network. It is also called communication mode.
    They are Simplex, Half Duplex and Full Duplex.
  19. What is bandwidth?
    The amount of data transmitted per second through the communication channel is called bandwidth. It is measured in bps (bits per second).
  20. What is LAN? List any two advantages and two disadvantages of LAN.
    A computer network that covers small geographical location like a room, building or campus is known as Local Area Network (LAN).
    Advantages:
    • LAN has highest bandwidth than MAN and WAN.
    • It can be owned by a single company or an organization.
    Disadvantages:
    • The network fails if the hub or switch fails.
    • It can only cover small geographical area.
  21. What is MAN ? List any two advantages two disadvantages of MAN.
    A computer network that covers larger geographical area than LAN and smaller geographical area than WAN is called Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The computer in MAN are interconnected within a city or neighboring cities.
    Advantages:
    • It covers larger geographical area than LAN.
    • It allows user to share files and data easily and quickly.
    Disadvantages:
    • It is expensive than LAN.
    • It becomes more difficult to manage network if the size of network increases.
  22. What is WAN ? List any two advantages two disadvantages of WAN.
    A computer network that covers the largest geographical area is called Wide Area Network (WAN). The computers in WAN are interconnected within a country, neighboring countries, continent and neighboring continents. Internet is the example of WAN.
    Advantages:
    • It covers largest geographical area.
    • People can communicate with each other using e-mail, IRC, video chat etc.
    Disadvantages:
    • The bandwidth of WAN is limited.
    • It is more expensive and difficult to set up and manage.
  23. What is NOS?
    NOS stands for Network Operating System. It is a multi-user operating system that is used to manage network resources and allows users to share data and information on the network.
    Examples of NOS are Windows NT Server, Novell Netware Server, Windows Advanced Server 2003 etc.
  24. What are networking devices? Give any two examples.
    The hardware device that are necessary to connect computers on the network is called networking devices.
    For example: MODEM, HUB, Switch, Bridge etc.
  25. Define gateway, bridge, HUB, Switch and MODEM.
    Gateway:
    A gateway is a device or a software that connects multiple networks having different protocols.
    Bridge:
    A bridge is a network connecting device that connects segments of same network or different network having same network protocol.
    HUB:
    A network connecting device that provides connection to the multiple devices on the network through multiple ports. It forwards the signals to all computer connected with the hub.
    Switch:
    A switch is similar to hub. It also connects the multiple devices on the network but forwards signals to the dedicated device and reduces the amount of unnecessary network traffic.
    MODEM:
    A MODEM stands for Modulator and Demodulator. It is a network connecting device that converts analog signals to digital and vice-versa.
  26. Differentiate between router and switch.
    Router Switch
    Router is an intelligent device that connects multiple networks having same protocols. Switch is a device having multiple connecting ports to connect computers on the network.
    It facilitates finding best route for data transmission to destination. It forward the data to the destination node directly.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

RECENT POST